Geospiza's tag line "From Sample to Results" represents the importance of capturing information from all steps in the laboratory process. Data volumes are important and lots of time is being spent discussing the overwhelming volumes of data produced by new data collection technologies like Next Gen sequencers. However, the real issue is not how you are going to store the data, rather it is what are you going to do with it? What do your data mean in the context of your experiment?
The Geospiza FinchLab software system supports the entire laboratory and data analysis workflow to convert sample information into results. What this means is that the system provides a complete set of web-based interfaces and an underlying database to enter information about samples and experiments, track sample preparation steps in the laboratory, link the resulting data back to samples, and process the data to get biological information. Previous posts have focused on information entry, laboratory workflows, and data linking. This post will focus on how data are processed to get biological information.
The ultra-high data output of Next Gen sequencers allows us to use DNA sequencing to ask many new kinds of questions about structural and nucleotide variation and measure several indicators of expression and transcription control on a genome-wide scale. The data produced consists of images, signal intensity data, quality information, and DNA sequences and quality values. For each data collection run, the total collection of data and files can be enormous and can require significant computing resources. While all of the data have to be dealt with in some fashion, some of the data have long-term value while other data are only needed in the short term. The final scientific results will often be produced by comparing data sets created from the DNA sequences and their comparison to reference data.
Next Gen data are processed in three phases.
Next Gen data workflows involve three distinct phases of work: 1. Data are collected from control and experimental samples. 2. Sequence data obtained from each sample are aligned to reference sequence data, or data sets to produce aligned data sets 3. Summaries of the alignment information from the aligned data sets are compared to produce scientific understanding. Each phase has a discrete analytical process and we, and others, call these phases primary data analysis, secondary data analysis and tertiary data analysis.
Primary data analysis involves converting image data to sequence data. The sequence data can be in familiar "ACTG" sequence space or less familiar color space (SOLiD) or flow space (454). Primary data analysis is commonly performed by software provided by the data collection instrument vendor and it is the first place where quality assessment about a sequencing run takes place.
Secondary data analysis creates the data sets that will be further used to develop scientific information. This step involves aligning the sequences from the primary data analyses to reference data. Reference data can be complete genomes, subsets of genomic data like expressed genes, or individual chromosomes. Reference data are chosen in an application specific manner and sometimes multiple reference data sets will be used in an iterative fashion.
Secondary data analysis has two objectives. The first is to determine the quality of the DNA library that was sequenced, from a biological and sample perspective. The primary data analysis supplies quality measurements that can used to determine if the instrument ran properly, or whether the density of beads or clusters were at their optimum to deliver the highest number of high quality reads. However, those data do not tell you about the quality of the samples. Answering questions about sample quality, such as did the DNA library contain systematic artifacts such as sequence bias? Were there high numbers of ligated adaptors or incomplete restriction enzyme digests, or any other factors that would interfere with interpreting the data? These kinds of questions are addressed in the secondary data analysis by aligning your reads to the reference data and seeing that your data make sense.
The second objective of secondary data analysis is to prepare the data sets for tertiary analysis where they will be compared in an experimental fashion. This step involves further manipulation of alignments, typically expressed in very large hard to read algorithm specific tables, to produce data tables that can be consumed by additional software. Speaking of algorithms, there is a large and growing list to choose from. Some are general purpose and others are specific to particular applications, we'll comment more on that later.
Tertiary data analysis represents the third phase of the Next Gen workflow. This phase may involve a simple activity like viewing a data set in a tool like a genome browser so that the frequency of tags can be used to identify promoter sites, patterns of variation, or structural differences. In other experiments, like digital gene expression, tertiary analysis can involve comparing different data sets in a similar fashion to microarray experiments. These kinds of analyses are the most complex; expression measurements need to be normalized between data sets and statistical comparisons need to be made to assess differences.
To summarize, the goal of primary and secondary analysis is to produce well-characterized data sets that can be further compared to obtain scientific results. Well-characterized means that the quality is good for both the run and the samples and that any biologically relevant artifacts are identified, limited, and understood. The workflows for these analyses involve many steps, multiple scientific algorithms, and numerous file formats. The choices of algorithms, data files, data file formats, and overall number of steps depend the kinds of experiments and assays being performed. Despite this complexity there are standard ways to work with Next Gen systems to understand what you have before progressing through each phase.
The Geospiza FinchLab system focuses on helping you with both primary and secondary data analysis.